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EUREF ANALYSIS CENTRE
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Agency acronym : LPT / L+T
Institution : Swiss Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo)
Mail Address : Seftigenstrasse 264
CH-3084 Wabern
Switzerland
Primary Contact
Contact Name : PNAC team
Telephone : +41 58 469 01 11
Fax :
E-Mail : pnac(at)swisstopo.ch
Secondary Contact
Contact Name :
Telephone :
Fax :
E-Mail :
Third Contact
Contact Name :
Telephone :
Fax :
E-Mail :
Software Used : Bernese GPS Software Version 4.0
Bernese GPS Software Version 4.2 (since 14-Dec-1999)
Bernese GPS Software Version 5.0 (since 03-Apr-2005)
Bernese GNSS Software Version 5.2 (since 15-Apr-2013)
Bernese GNSS Software Version 5.3 (since 28-Jul-2016)
Stat. Included in Analysis : The list of the included stations is given in the
weekly processing summary files.
The current station distribution is given on the
EPN webpage.
EUREF solutions generated : LPT0EPNFIN_yyyyddd0000_07D_07D_SOL.SNX
for Year 'yyyy', DoY 'ddd' Solution for 1 week in SINEX format
LPT0EPNFIN_yyyyddd0000_07D_07D_SUM.SUM
Processing summary file for 1 week
LPT0EPNFIN_yyyyddd0000_01D_01D_SOL.SNX
Daily SINEX results
LPT0EPNFIN_yyyyddd0000_01D_01H_TRO.TRO
Daily troposphere SINEX (based on
weekly solution)
EUREF solutions sent to : BKG, BEV
Report generated : 12-Dec-1996
Report updated : 12-Jan-2000
16-Oct-2001
08-Jun-2005
11-Dec-2006
02-Jun-2014
28-Jul-2016
10-May-2017
22-Oct-2019
16-Apr-2020
29-May-2020
20-Dec-2022
31-Mar-2023
14-Aug-2023
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MEASUREMENT MODELS
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Preprocessing : Phase preprocessing in a baseline by baseline mode
using triple-differences. In most cases cycle slips
are fixed looking simultaneously at different linear
combinations of L1 and L2. If a cycle slip cannot be
fixed reliably, bad data points are removed or new
ambiguities are set up. Data files covering less than
12 hours of data are automatically rejected.
The a posteriori normalized residuals of the obser-
vations are checked for outliers, too. These obser-
vations are marked for the final parameter adjustment.
Basic Observable : GNSS carrier phase only,
elevation angle cutoff 20 degrees,
since week 908 : 15 degrees (C.B.) and equal
weighting of the observations
since week 1130: 10 degrees and cos-z weighting of
the observations
since week 1400: 3 degrees + elevation dependent
weighting with cos-z,
inclusion of GPS + GLONASS observations
since week 1905: Multi-GNSS observations used:
inclusion of Galileo + BeiDou observations
from RINEX-3 data
since week 2074: BeiDou observations excluded due to
switching to CODE final rapid products
sampling rate: 30 sec for data screening
180 sec for final solution
Modelled : Double-differences, ionosphere-free linear combination.
observable
Ground antenna : up to week 1400: Relative phase center corrections
phase center based on IGS_01 model (no exceptions)
calibrations since week 1400: Absolute antenna phase center corrections
based on IGS05 model (exceptions for
stations with indiv. absol. calibrations
listed in epnc_05.atx) considering antenna
radome codes. If antenna/radome pair has no
available calibrations, the corresponding
values for the radome code "NONE" are used.
since week 1632: IGS08/EPNC model (updates)
Phase center corrections of uncalibrated
frequencies or systems are adopted from
GPS.
since week 1934: IGS14+EPNC_14 models (and updates)
since week 2238: IGS20+EPNC_20 models (and updates)
Uncalibrated frequencies or systems are
excluded.
Troposphere : up to week 1130: Saastamoinen a priori model,
estimating zenith delays in 2 hour
intervals for each station,
mapping function: 1/cos(zenith angle).
since week 1130: No a priori model,
estimating zenith delays in 1 hour
intervals for each station,
mapping function: Dry Niell.
Compute daily TRO files with fixed cummul.
coordinates input from weekly solution.
since week 1317: Saastaminen-based hydrostatic zenith delay
mapped using dry-Niell MF (as a priori
model), estimation of zenith delay
corrections at 1-hour intervals for each
station (using the wet-Niell MF).
Compute daily TRO files with fixed cummul.
coordinates input from weekly solution.
since week 1400: Dry-Niell as a priori model,
estimation of zenith delay corrections
at 1-hour intervals for each station,
using the wet-Niell MF, no a priori sigmas.
Horizontal gradient parameter estimated/
day/station (TILTING), no a priori constraints.
Compute daily TRO files with fixed cummul.
coordinates input from weekly solution.
since week 1731: GMF mapping function;
GPT model to compute hydrostatic delay;
Chen-Herring (CHENHER) gradient model.
since week 1905: ECMWF-based hydrostatic delay mapped with
hydrostatic VMF1. Coefficients from
6-hourly global grids. Wet VMF1 used for
estimation.
since week 2238: ECMWF-based hydrostatic delay mapped with
hydrostatic VMF3. Coefficients from
6-hourly global 1x1 degree grids. Wet VMF3
used for estimation.
No global troposphere estimates (e.g. from IGS or CODE) are
introduced.
Ionosphere : CODE global ionosphere models are considered. These
models help to increase the number of resolved ambiguities
in the QIF, the L5/L3 and the L1/L2 ambiguity resolution.
For the final adjustment, the ionosphere cancels out
due to the used ionosphere-free linear combination.
Higher-order ionosphere (HOI) corrections are applied.
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ESTIMATED PARAMETERS (APRIORI VALUES & SIGMAS)
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Adjustment : Least-squares adjustment
Rejection Criter.: The described two-step preprocessing method eliminates
outliers. Rejection criterion of L3 outliers: 0.0025 m
since week 1317 reduced to 0.0020 m
since week 1674 set to 0.0040 m
(normalized L1 zero-difference zenith value)
Station : Minimum constraint solution aligned to current ITRF using
coordinates an automatic fiducial station selection scheme.
NEQ SINEX results are generated (containing minimum
constained solution).
since week 1021: ITRF97
since week 1065: IGS97
since week 1143: IGS00
since week 1253: IGb00
since week 1400: IGS05
since week 1632: IGS08
since week 1709: IGb08
since week 1934: IGS14
since week 2106: IGb14
since week 2238: IGS20
Troposphere : Relative constraints of 3 mm/hour are applied.
The SINEX troposphere files are based on the weekly
coordinate files (re-substitution).
Ionospheric : Cancels out in the ionosphere-free linear combination.
Internally, higher-order ionosphere scaling factors would
allow to turn on/off HOI corrections at NEQ level.
Ambiguity : Ambiguities are resolved in a baseline-by-baseline
mode performing the following steps:
. Melbourne-Wuebbena approach (<6000 km)
. Quasi-Ionosphere-Free (QIF) approach (<2000 km)
(also for GLONASS, same frequencies)
. Phase-based widelane/narrowlane (L5/L3) method (<200 km)
(also for GLONASS, no restrictions)
. Direct L1/L2 method (<20 km)
(also for GLONASS, no restrictions)
GLONASS is considered for ambiguity resolution (<2000 km).
CODE ionosphere map information is used to support the
code-less methods.
since week 1905: Galileo and BeiDou are considered in
all ambiguitiy resolution steps
since week 2074: BeiDou is no longer considered
Satellite clock : Satellite clock biases are not estimated but eliminated
bias by forming double-differences.
Receiver clock : Receiver clock corrections are estimated during the
bias pre-processing using code measurements.
Orbits and ERPs : since week 908: We use the IGS orbits and ERPs.
Therefore we process the data with
a time delay of 18 days.
since week 1400: CODE orbits and EPRs (consistency
of GPS and GLONASS)
since week 1905: CODE MGEX products (consistency of GPS,
GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou)
since week 2074: CODE final rapid products (consistency of
GPS, GLONASS, Galileo)
since week 2238: CODE final products
Planetary ephemeris:
up to week 1030: NEWCOMP
since week 1030: DE200
since week 1731: DE405
since week 1934: DE421
Ocean tides:
up to week 1030: NO
since week 1317: OT_CSRC
since week 1731: OT_FES2004
since week 2100: OT_FES2014b
The Earth geopotential is modeled using:
up to week 1030: GEMT3
since week 1030: JGM3
since week 1731: EGM2008_SMALL
Nutation model:
since week 1317: IAU2000
since week 1731: IAU2000R06
Subdaily pole model:
since week 1317: IERS2000
since week 1731: IERS2010XY
since week 2238: DESAI2016
Tidal : Solid Earth tide: according to the IERS 2010 standards
displacements TIDE2000
Remark:
Due to a bug in Bernese V4.2, the step 2 correction was
applied with a wrong time argument (GPS weeks 1040 - 1316).
This causes annual variations with amplitudes of 1 cm in
station height (or correspondingly in the scale parameter
in case of minimum constraint solutions)
Ocean tide loading:
up to week 1030: no model applied
since week 1030: ocean loading coefficients provided by
H.G.Scherneck
since week 1317: GOT00.2
since week 1367: FES2004 model
since week 1731: FES2004 model (updated)
since week 2100: FES2014b model
Atmospheric tides:
since week 1905: VAPL.ATL (S1_S2_CM_NOIB_VAPL.dat)
since week 2238: None
Non-tidal : Atmospheric pressure:
loadings since week 1905: Atmospheric pressure corrections based on
ECMWF models, but removed from the final
products.
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